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Join Date: Aug 2013
Posts: 167
Originally Posted by chris_seven View Post
I can't find a description of how these parts work.

There is a 997 part described as a Garlock Ring and another hint at what sounds like an MLS system.

I am very interested to learn more
Basic description

Sealing System –
Old 08-12-2017, 12:42 PM
  Pelican Parts Technical Article Directory    Reply With Quote #21 (permalink)
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Join Date: May 2004
Posts: 15
Regardless of what sealing system you use; proper assembly procedures must be performed.

Head stud stretch and any collapsing of the cylinder head must be known and under control otherwise any sealing system is pointless. The integrity of the threaded bores in the engine case must be of the highest quality and any cleaning or repair work must be performed with care. This area is the foundation of holding the heads down to the cylinders. Any sort of thread reconditioning must be done with a straightening tap and never with a cutting tap.

Typically, the assembly procedure requires a torque on each head nut but if the stretch of whatever head stud used is unknown, the torque value is meaningless. Friction must be considered here and anything that will lower the friction must be performed. When buying any aftermarket stud, the supplier should be supplying the stretch value that stud will achieve to put the stud into its designed “tensile stress”.

The head stud must be put into “tensile stress” so under running conditions when the cylinder pressure tries to push the head and cylinder apart, the tensile stretch or elongation added to the stud must resist any lift. This puts the head and cylinder under compression with each other.

Air-cooled heads often soften over time and many are never checked when they are repaired. This is a quick and important test before any repair is started. Check that the platforms where the head washers sit are not collapsed inwards as this will affect the clamping forces applied to the head studs. We want all the force applied to go into the stud and not be lost in any movement within the case threads, the head collapsing under the washer or absorbed by friction.

If you assemble the heads and only use a torque value to tighten the head nuts, you are not compensating for any of these issues. If you do not want to measure the stretch, then an angle method should be used as it eliminates any friction.

Without any stretch value, you should do a dry test assembly and measure the stretch of the stud at various angles. In our tests with different studs, we have found that the typical stretch was between 0.006” – 0.008” to achieve successful clamping. Make sure in any testing the stud returns to its relaxed length. Stretch can be measured in thousands of an inch or hundreds of a millimeter so measuring can be achieved with simple measuring tools. The same tool (dial indicator) you use to do the cam timing (lift) can be used here. This method can give you an angle to use in assembly that will obtain an average desired stretch falling within the elongation desired. However, the best method is to measure each stud.

Making sure you have equal stretch on each stud will achieve an equal compression load on each corner of each head. This eliminates the probability of any leakage between the head and cylinder from poor assembly. If you continue to have any leakage issues, you will know it’s not from how you are assembling the engine. Now you can consider sealing systems and other solutions.
We recently did our sealing system for a customer and asked for the head stud used to be sent with the heads, so we could test the stretch of the stud for him and give him a stretch and angle value to use in the reassembly.

I tell customers that all this fancy work and fancy parts are worthless unless good assembly procedures are upheld. It is typically the basic’s that let us down.

“Nothing will humble a man more than an engine or an angry wife”.
Old 08-12-2017, 02:41 PM
  Pelican Parts Technical Article Directory    Reply With Quote #22 (permalink)
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We had a similar issue with Coventry Climax Wet liner engines and using Coopers Rings. The precision of the machining work was essential to ensure sealing and in our case to avoid water leaks.

Have you measured the change in hardness of the heads? I would be interested to know how much change occurs as this would allow an estimate of the stress relaxation to made.

Do you measure the stretch of the head stud with an an Ultrasonic Gauge or have you made a mechanical fixture?

We have made a fixture to measure preload on an individual stud with a load cell and we have used this to determine a suitable 'torque + angle' relationship for preload but I am not sure about how much preload is needed to prevent the head from lifting with a Turbo engine.

Sadly this is a background task for us so it is not something we work on every day.

If you are using standard steel studs then a stretch of 0.008" would result in a preload of about 3700lbs per stud which is about what could be expected when using the standard 32Nm.

This would mean that at a peak cylinder pressure of around 1400psi on a 3.0 litre engine the head would tend lift clear.

I am not sure how much the preload needs to be relaxed before the head would shuffle but I would like to see preloads of about 6000lbs per stud which should allow a peak cylinder pressure of about 2200psi before lift occurs.

The later version of the workshop manual suggests a torque of 15Nm and an angle of 90 degrees.

This would suggest a 'stretch' of around 0.015".

When we make measurements using 15Nm and 90 degrees we see preload values of around 7000lbs.

This is significantly more preload than tightening to 32NNm which does produce a value of around 4000lbs an

Have you considered making studs with an increased thread size on the case end? This could then allow a larger shank diameter and increase the preload for a given stretch.

It would avoid the need to use a case saver or timesert and would remove all of the material that has been highly stressed and suffered from the effects of stress relaxation in the area of the case thread.

Last edited by chris_seven; 08-13-2017 at 02:58 AM..
Old 08-13-2017, 02:25 AM
  Pelican Parts Technical Article Directory    Reply With Quote #23 (permalink)
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Location: Costa Rica and Pennsylvania U.S.
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Just do what the factory did when they had leaks.Use electron I-Beam welding of the cylinder to the head.The later factory 3.6 head gasket works very well up to 1,2 bar.Weld them then run 2 bar and you will have new conditions to solve.Fred
Old 08-15-2017, 04:49 PM
  Pelican Parts Technical Article Directory    Reply With Quote #24 (permalink)

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