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alternator 'idiot' light

The most important:

Before diagnosing alternator problems there is one thing to mention. Alternators use an "exciter" voltage to get the alternator working when you start your car. About 90% of the cars made today run that 12 volts through the "battery" or "alternator" bulb (AKA the idiot light). you need to check to see if this bulb is not burned out. It should light when the key is turned on! If it doesn't then there is a very good chance that the alternator will not put out! Replace the bulb before beginning the rest of the diagnosis."

If you have been around cars for a while you might have heard the term generator. Well, those were the old days and the good old generator is history. What a generator did for the old cars, an alternator now does. a car has + electrical system that carries power to such essential things as headlights, ignition coils, engine cooling fans + other non-essential things as the radio , aircon fans etc. All of that power has to come from somewhere! A lot of people might think that power comes from the battery + that is true to some extent. The energy is the gas tank + the link from the gas tank to the battery is the alternator. It takes mechanical power from the crankshaft, transmits it via a "fan" belt, or serpentine belt as it is called in most of the newer vintage cars +turns the alternator. So, the main function of the alternator is to convert power from the gasoline engine that drives you along the road, to electrical energy to keep the battery in tip-top condition.

What happens when an alternator goes bad? Well, at first, nothing. That is because the battery has some reserve power in it, enough to keep the engine running for quite some time. So a bad alternator doesn't necessarily mean a tow truck should be called right away. As long as energy is conserved elsewhere, like turning off the blower motor, the rear window de-fogger, the stereo and the headlights (if possible), you could make it for some distance on just the battery reserve alone.

One major problem which will finally occur as the battery loses its charge is that there will not be sufficient voltage to keep the engine running well. Alternators use an "exciter" voltage to get the alternator working when you start your car. About 90% of the cars made today run that 12 volts through the "battery" or "alternator" bulb (AKA the idiot light). So you need to check to see if this bulb is not burned out. It should light when the key is turned on! If it doesn't then there is a very good chance that the alternator will not put out! Replace the bulb before beginning the rest of the diagnosis.

how do you know when your alternator is going bad? Most of the time the alternator fails in stages. The alternator gets its name from the fact that it generates alternating current (AC). The old generators mentioned before generated direct current (DC). Well the battery can't use alternating current so the alternator output is fed into what are called diodes, which convert the AC into DC. The alternator has a unique feature in that it is able to generate a relatively high voltage while the engine is at idle. The old generators needed to be running at a fast pace before they got up to 13 or 14 volts. The alternator can do this since it is really three alternators in one body. Each of the three sections of the alternator generates its voltage out of phase with the other two sections. Since the complete cycle (one revolution) of the alternator is 360 degrees, each phase is shifted by 120 degrees from the next phase. So in one revolution of the alternator it puts out three separate voltages.

back to the failure mode. Each of the 3 phases has its own windings in the alternator + each of the windings has its own pair of diodes. Each of these windings and/or diodes can fail, one set at a time. If this happens the alternator can still charge the battery, but only with a limited current, approximately 2/3 of its original capacity if one system fails. If two systems fail, then it puts out only 1/3 of its rated capacity. What that means to you is that you can go a long time on a limping alternator. Chances are if you don't need headlights or air conditioning or other high current using accessories, you would never know that the alternator was in the process of failing! The time you will find out is when it is 10 below zero and you wear down the battery by cranking the starter, then put the fan on high for heat, and then drive in the dark.

How can you tell if the alternator is failing without taking it apart and doing some measuring inside the alternator? Pretty simple. You will need a simple voltmeter. Start the car, make sure all the accessories are off +d rev up the motor to a fast idle. Set the Voltmeter to the DC scale (not AC or Ohms). Measure the voltage across the battery terminals - red lead of the voltmeter on the positive terminal, black on the negative (ground in most cars). The voltage should, and probably will, read around 14 volts. If it reads less than 12 volts you may indeed have a failed alternator + you can skip the next step. Next, turn on the heater, the rear window de-fogger, the radio, the headlights and anything else that draws power. Now rev up the motor + watch the voltmeter. It should still be reading around 14 volts. If it reads lower than 13 volts the chances are that your alternator is not up to snuff. One last failure mode is noise. The rotor inside the alternator rotates on bearings, normally very high precision needle bearings + these can fail. When they do you will hear a loud grinding noise associated with the alternator. To isolate the noise take a length of tubing, heater hose will do fine, put one end to your ear and move the other around in the vicinity of the alternator. The noise will be much louder when you point it at the alternator if that is the culprit. Other possibilities are the water pump and the power steering pump which are also driven by the engine belt. To further isolate the noise disconnect the drive belt + spin the alternator by hand. If you hear a rumble or grinding noise then the bearings are shot. If you don't hear a noise the problem may still be in the alternator since the bearing might be quiet without the loading of the drive belt tension. Check for side play in the pulley. If you are pretty certain the noise came from the alternator it is a relatively simple task to take it apart + visually inspect the bearings, else swap it in for a rebuilt. Your auto supply store will normally bench test the alternator free of charge and can tell you at that time if the bearings are noisy.

Before you go running down to the parts store for a new alternator make sure to check the connections at the battery terminals and also check to see that the voltage is the same at the alternator terminal (the big fat one with the heavy wire attached). Check to make sure the belts are tight + not slipping. Replace them if they are cracked or shiny on the side that faces the alternator pulley.

One final thing to check - the field voltage. In order for the alternator to generate electricity it must be supplied with a field voltage. If you know which wire is the one that supplies the field (normally labeled 'F') then simply check with a voltmeter to see if there is 12 volts at the field. Another check is to use a hacksaw blade or a lightweight screwdriver , anything magnetic, and hold it near the side of the alternator with the ignition switch turned in the on position. If there is a field voltage present then the metal will be attracted magnetically to the side of the alternator, not very strongly, but you will feel it pull the metal to the side of the alternator.

1. Did you perform a load test on the alternator? What were the voltage readings? Were they all below specification?? (mechanics will use a load testing machine instead of turning on all the accessories.)

2. Did you check to see if the belts were old + cracked or possibly slipping?

3. Did you measure the voltage at the alternator connector or at the battery? Were the readings the same at both places or is there a voltage drop somewhere in the system.

4. Finally, did you check the price on a rebuilt as well as a new alternator? (rebuilt alternators are just as good as new if they are done correctly and usually cost about 1/3 as much)
source: Just what is an Alternator??

What does the battery light on the dashboard mean?

This battery powers everything electrical: the engine's control computer, the ignition system, the radio, the headlights, etc. So the battery is vital to the car's operation.

Like all batteries, a car's 12-volt battery would eventually go dead if it were not recharged, so your car has a built-in recharging system. Most cars have an alternator, along with a voltage regulator, that keeps the battery charged + also provides electricity to the vehicle when the engine is running.

All cars have a battery light on the dashboard that is designed to warn you if the recharging system fails. A simple circuit looks at the voltage that the alternator is producing, and turns the battery light on if it is low. The battery light indicates a battery charging problem. If the battery light comes on and stays on while you are driving, the most common cause is a broken alternator belt. Total failure of the alternator is another possibility.

The reason why your car can operate normally even though the battery light is on is because your car can run off the energy stored in the battery. Your car will run fine until the battery goes dead. At that point, nothing in your car will work. When the battery light is on, you can still drive your car to the garage -- you will not damage anything. But you want to get to the garage before the battery fails and your car dies.

HowStuffWorks "What does the battery light on the dashboard mean?"
Old 06-30-2010, 07:10 AM
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part II

Now we all know why it is called an IDIOT LIGHT!
One of my neighbors came over to seek my advice on a baffling problem he was having with his GM and its charging system. He was having dead battery problems and had taken his alternator off to replace it. Fortunately he had taken it to "Wheels" the former National Auto store, and they had tested it on an alternator testing machine. There was nothing wrong with it. This neighbor, I'll call him Artie, had the foresight to do some diagnostics ahead of time and determined that there was no output (14.5 volts) at battery or at the alternator stud, so a logical conclusion was that the problem was in the alternator - it has a built in voltage regulator so logic prevailed. Replace the alternator and solve the dead battery problem, right? Nope.

We had the service manual open to the circuit describing the charging system. I traced the wires and determined which one was the field and which was the bat and which one was ground. Then I noticed something strange. I thought it was a typo - the wire from the 12 volt source to the field winding went through the idiot light filament, that's right, the bulb is in series with the field supply. Alternators don't have a true field supply like the old generators had with external voltage regulators which regulated the output by switching the field winding on and off. But they do need something to start the system working. Once the system is putting out its current the system becomes sort of self sustaining.

I took a short length of wire and connected it to the field terminal while the engine was running. Suddenly, the voltmeter across the battery went to 14.5 volts! I took the wire off the terminal and sure enough the system continued to charge at 14.5 volts. Fixed, right?? Nope.

Artie shut the engine down and restarted it again - nothing - jump the field, 14.5 volts.

I asked Artie if the idiot light was on while it was running and not putting anything out. Nope. He shut it down again and we tried it all over again, only this time I sat in the driver's seat and Artie did the jumper thing. Same results, only I did notice something strange. "Just where is the "alt" idiot light on the dash panel Artie? I didn't see one - just an engine light and an oil pressure light."

There was no idiot light for the charging system! I took a flashlight and held it at an angle to the dash panel. There, not visible under normal lighting conditions, was a place for the "bat" light. Yet it did NOT light when the switch was turned to the "ON" position. Then it hit me like a ton of poop! Remember I thought that the circuit diagram was in error - that the idiot light was shown to be in series with the field terminal on the alternator?? Well, that was not a typo! The bulb in the dash panel is part of the charging circuit. It is REQUIRED to be functional to supply the initial field voltage to get the alternator started doing its thing. IF THE BULB IS BURNED OUT THE SYSTEM WILL NOT CHARGE!!

It took us another half an hour to get to where the bulb should be but it became obvious that it was going to take a LOT more than a half hour to replace the bulb. It looked like part of the instrument cluster was going to come out before we got to the bulb. Plan "B" went into effect. I found the wire under the hood that supplies the idiot light and wired in a small socket and a bulb under the hood. I connected the other end of the wire to the field terminal and started it up. Voila! Charged just like new. I taped the bulb and socket to a handy vacuum hose and closed the hood. To this day that GM product is still riding around with a bulb taped to the vacuum line under the hood. I would love to see the face on the mechanic who discovers that bulb and wonders what the heck it is doing there!!
Old 06-30-2010, 07:11 AM
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"What does that little red light that says ALT mean when it comes on?" Very basically, it means that either the alternator output voltage is lower than the battery voltage, or the battery voltage is lower than the alternator output voltage. If the light gets dimmer as you rev up the engine, then you most likely have a problem with the alternator. If it gets brighter, then the battery is most likely bad.

That's all well and good, but just exactly what does all that mean? To get a good idea, it is first necessary to understand how an alternator works. You don't need an engineering degree, just a basic understanding of the general principles. Figure 1, below, is a block diagram, or a "functional" diagram, of an alternator, and its connections to the remainder of the automobile electrical system. Following the figure is a description of the various components that make up an alternator, and a description of how each operates to keep the battery charged in your car.
We'll start our tour of the alternator where it all starts in the alternator itself - at the alternator rotor. The rotor consists of a coil of wire wrapped around an iron core. Current through the wire coil - called "field" current - produces a magnetic field around the core. The strength of the field current determines the strength of the magnetic field. The field current is D/C, or direct current. In other words, the current flows in one direction only, and is supplied to the wire coil by a set of brushes and slip rings. The magnetic field produced has, as any magnet, a north and a south pole. The rotor is driven by the alternator pulley, rotating as the engine runs, hence the name "rotor."

Surrounding the rotor is another set of coils, three in number, called the stator. The stator is fixed to the shell of the alternator, and does not turn. As the rotor turns within the stator windings, the magnetic field of the rotor sweeps through the stator windings, producing an electrical current in the windings. Because of the rotation of the rotor, an alternating current is produced. As, for example, the north pole of the magnetic field approaches one of the stator windings, there is little coupling taking place, and a weak current is produced, As the rotation continues, the magnetic field moves to the center of the winding, where maximum coupling takes place, and the induced current is at its peak. As the rotation continues to the point that the magnetic field is leaving the stator winding, the induced current is small. By this time, the south pole is approaching the winding, producing a weak current in the opposite direction. As this continues, the current produced in each winding plotted against the angle of rotation of the rotor has the form shown in figure 2. The three stator windings are spaced inside the alternator 120 degrees apart, producing three separate sets, or "phases," of output voltages, spaced 120 degrees apart, as shown in figure 3.
A/C voltage is of little use in a D/C system, such as used in an automobile, so it has to be converted to D/C before it can be used. This conversion to D/C takes place in the "output diodes" and in the "diode trio." Diodes have the property of allowing current to flow in only one direction, while blocking current flow in the other direction. The output diodes consist of six diodes, one pair for each winding. One of the pair is for the negative half cycle, and the other for the positive half cycle. As a result of this diode rectification, the output of the alternator looks as shown in figure 4.
Surprisingly enough, the output of the alternator is not a pure D/C as one might expect, but a pulsating D/C. Because there are three windings, each with a positive and a negative half, by the time the voltage is passed through the diodes, there are six pulsations for each rotation of the rotor. This is close enough to D/C for most automotive components. Critical components, such as radios, have their own internal filtering circuits to further smooth out the waveform to a purer D/C.

The diode trio consists, as the name suggests, of three diodes, one per phase, which provides field current to the alternator regulator. This output will be discussed in more detail later in the "field current supply" section.

The regulator has two inputs and one output. The inputs are the field current supply and the control voltage input, and the output is the field current to the rotor. The regulator uses the control voltage input to control the amount of field current input that is allow to pass through to the rotor winding. If the battery voltage drops, the regulator senses this, by means of the connection to the battery, and allows more of the field current input to reach the rotor, which increases the magnetic field strength, which ultimately increases the voltage output of the alternator. Conversely, if the battery voltage goes up, less field current goes through the rotor windings, and the output voltage is reduced.

Field current supply is provided from two different sources - from the alternator itself, via the diode trio, and from the battery, via the alternator warning lamp. When you first get in the car and turn the key on, the engine is not running and the alternator is not spinning. At this time, the voltage/current source for the field current is from the battery, through the ignition switch, and through the warning lamp. After the engine is started, and the alternator is up to speed, the output of the diode trio is fed back to the regulator, and serves as a source of current for the field current. At this time, the alternator is self sustaining, and the battery is no longer needed to power the automobiles electrical system WARNING!!! This is theoretical only - in actual practice, the voltage surges resulting from disconnecting the battery can seriously damage the regulator circuitry. All alternator manufacturers strongly advise NOT doing this! This test will not prove the functionality of the alternator anyway, as the engine may still run with a weak alternator output.

This brings us back full circle to the starting point - the alternator warning lamp. As can be seen from figure 5, a schematic for an actual alternator, there is a path to ground from the field current supply input [1] to the regulator. As a result, when the key is turned on, current flows through the warning lamp, through the resisters, transistors, and field coil, and then to ground, causing the lamp to illuminate. Once the alternator is at full output, voltage from the diode trio, also applied to [1], equals the battery voltage. At this time, with 12 volts on both sides, the lamp is out.
If the alternator should fail, voltage from the diode trio would drop, and once again the lamp would light from the battery voltage. If the alternator output is only a little low, the lamp will be dimly lit. If the alternator fails completely, and the output voltage goes to zero, the lamp will be lit at full brilliance. Conversely, if the battery should fail, and the battery voltage drops, with the output voltage of the alternator on one side and the low battery voltage on the other, the lamp will also light.

As stated earlier, if the light grows dimmer as the engine is revved up, it is because the alternator voltage is rising with the RPM, producing more voltage on the alternator side of the lamp. The closer the output voltage gets to the battery voltage, the dimmer the bulb becomes. By the same way, if the light gets brighter with increasing RPM, it is because as the alternator voltage increases, it is getting higher than the battery voltage. The higher the voltage with respect to the battery voltage, the greater the voltage difference across the lamp, and the brighter it gets.

In summary, then, we can say that field current through the rotor coils produces a magnetic field, which is coupled over to the stator coils, producing an AC voltage. This AC voltage is converted by the output diodes into pulsating DC voltage, which charges the battery.

The field current is supplied from either the battery, via the warning lamp, or from the diode trio. The amount of field current allowed to pass through the regulator to the rotor, or field coil, is controlled by the voltage feedback from the battery.

And there you have it - the complete operation of an alternator in a nutshell. The next time you see the little red light, you will know exactly what it is trying to tell you.

The above article has been provided courtesy of Dan Masters
Understanding Alternators, How Alternators Work
Old 08-21-2010, 10:06 PM
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